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Fruity:                     Citrus - grapefruit, lemon; berry - blackberry, raspberry, strawberry, black currant (cassis); tree fruit - cherry, apricot, peach,                                        apple;tropical fruit - pineapple, melon, banana; dried fruit - strawberry jam, raisins, prune, fig. 

Vegetative:             fresh - stemmy, cut green grass, bell pepper, eucalyptus, mint; canned-cooked - green beans, asparagus, green olive,    

                               blolive,artichoke; dried - haw-straw, tea, tobacco. Nutty:walnut, hazelnut, almond.

Caramelised:          honey, butterscotch, butter, soy sauce, chocolate, molasses

Woody:                   vanilla, cedar, oak, smoky, burnt toast, charred, coffee.

Earthy:                    dusty, mushroom, musty (mildew), mouldy cork.

Chemical:               petroleum - tar, plastic, kerosene, diesel; sulphur - rubbery, garlic, skunk, cabbage, burnt match, wet wool, wet dog; papery - wet

                               cardboard; pungent - acetic acid (vinegar); other - soapy, fishy.

Pungent:                hot - alcohol; cool - menthol.

Microbiological:      yeast, sauerkraut, sweaty, horsy, "mousey." 

Floral:                     orange blossom, rose, violet, geranium.

Spicy:                     cloves, black pepper, liquorice, anise.



Sauvignon Blanc:       Gooseberries, 'cat's pee', asparagus.

Sémillon:                    Honey, orange, lime.

Chardonnay:              Butter, melon, apple, pineapple, vanilla (if oaked).

Chenin Blanc:            Wet wool, beeswax, honey, apple, almond.

Rhine Riesling:          Citrus fruits, petrol, honey.

Gewürztraminer:        Rose petals, lychees, spice.

Viognier:                    Peaches, pear, nutmeg, apricot.



Gamay:                            Banana, bubble-gum, red fruits.

Pinot Noir:                        Raspberry, cherry, violets, 'farmyard' (with age).

Zinfandel:                         Black cherry, mixed spices, tea, mint.

Syrah:                              Tobacco, pepper, blackberry.

Grenache:                        Smoky, pepper, raspberry.

Tempranillo:                     Vanilla, strawberry, tobacco.

Sangiovese:                     Herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy.

Nebbiolo:                          Leather, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice.

Merlot:                              Black cherry, plums, pepper, coffee.

Cabernet Franc:               Tobacco, raspberry, grass.

Cabernet Sauvignon:       Blackcurrants, chocolate, mint, tobacco.

Pinotage:                         Raspberry, plum, pine needles, dried banana.

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